Semester: Spring
Lectures/Classes: 15 / 15 hours
Field of study: Veterinary Medicine
Study cycle: 1st cycle
Type of course: compulsory
Prerequisites: General biology.
Contact person: dr hab. Arkadiusz Miążek dr Maciej Zacharski
Short description: During the course students learn rules of inheritance and mechanisms generating genetic diversity. Issues are discussed related to Mendelian genetics, chromosome theory of inheritance, genetic mutations and their influence on single organism or population. Students perform Mendelian crosses using fruit fly as model organism. Students also learn and apply modern methods of molecular genetics for the diagnosis of single trait diseases. Eestimation of allelic and genotypic frequencies of selected genes associated with traits important for animal’s health is performed.
Full description: 1. Introduction to genetics. The history of genetics including key theories that led to its development. Definitions of basic concepts, among others, gene, genome, genotype, phenotype homozygote, heterozygote. Mendel's laws. Basic knowledge of the chemical structure of genes. Organizational information. 2. The chromosomal theory of inheritance. Differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic chromosome. Structure and morphology of the metaphase chromosome. Karyotypes and idiogramy selected livestock and pet. The use of differentiating staining. Feedback features, map distance. The concept of alleles. Cell division with a particular indication of meiosis as a source of genetic variation. Gametogenesis. 3. General features of inheritance. Complete, incomplete dominance, heterozygote advantage, codominance. Multiple alleles, lethal and sub-lethal alleles, examples of synthetic lethality in animals and humans. Testing carrier lethal alleles. Mapping of chromosomes. Calculating distances mapped using crosses 2- and 3 points. Sex determination in mammals, birds and other animals. 4. Deviations from the laws of Mendel and chemical basis of heredity. Complementarity epistasis, gene complementation, modifier genes, examples of their presence in animals. Chemical structure of DNA and RNA, molecular processes leading to copy the genetic information and expression of phenotypes. Types of RNA. The genetic code. 5. Regulation of gene expression and quantitative traits. The levels of gene expression. Mechanisms of action of transcription factors. Hox genes. Epigenetics, genetic imprinting. Inactivation of X chromosome, cumulative genes. Calculations of phenotypic fission using Pascal's triangle. Transgression and heritability. 6. Mutations. Types of chromosome mutations, gene and point mutations. Mosaicism. Causes of mutations. Physical and chemical mutagens. The concept carcinogen. Recombination and DNA repair. Markers of recombination. Biochemical phenotypes. Organization of mitochondrial genomes. 7. Introduction to population genetics. Basic concepts (population, the incidence of an allele). Law Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Factors affecting the frequency of alleles in a population.
Bibliography: 1. “Introduction to veterinary genetics”, F.W. Nicholas, third edition, 2010 2. „Principles of Genetics”, Snustad,Simmons, sixth or seventh edition, 3. „Concepts of Genetics”, Klug, Cummings, Spencer, eight edition
Learning outcomes: Knowledge: - use genetic terminology and understand rules of inheritance (chromosomes, meiosis, mitosis, gene definitions, mendelian inheritance, linkage, inactivation, chemistry of the gene) - list examples and understand the molecular basis of single gene disorders (inborn errors of metabolism, sex limited inheritance, genetic heterogeneity of disease, genetic and environmental control of inherited disorders, major molecular techniques for genetic disease diagnosis) - apply knowledge on population genetics for estimating genetic diversity (Hardy Weinberg equation, factors affecting allele frequencies, measurements of genetic diversity within and among populations, breeding structure, crossing schemes) Skills: - solving mendelian problems, calculating frequency of alleles in populations. - using fruit fly as a model organism in genetics - performing molecular diagnosis of an inactivating mutation within a multidrug resistance gene (MDR1) in dogs Social competences: - ability to work in a team as a leader or a member - collaborate with veterinary geneticists to diagnose single trait diseases
Assessment methods and assessment criteria: Written exam - 50%, Quizzes - 25%, Attendance - 20%, Positive contribution to classroom environment - 5%.

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